As early as the late 1730s, New London's first 'beacon' was established at Harris Point on the west bank of the 'Harbour's Mouth', where the Thames River meets Long Island Sound. The beacon was associated with a military position - to be lit only to provide warning (to the main battery at the downtown New London Parade) against the approach of the French fleet.
The original harbor lighthouse was built in the colonial era, across the reigns of Kings George II and III. The land was purchased in 1759. The 1761 lighthouse construction cost £715, roughly $285,000 in 2010 dollars, with 70% paid with private financing – a lottery, and another 30% ultimately paid with Connecticut colony tax revenues.
The 1761 printed plan of the lighthouse Lottery includes the following statement promoting the utility of the proposed New London Harbor lighthouse: ... (shipping) ... will be conducted to the safe Harbour of New London; and those bound Eastward or Westward, will be Directed by the said Light-House, to go out, or come in, through the Horse Race (aka ‘the Race’ where Long Island Sound opens up to the Atlantic Ocean) and proceed their course.
The original New London Harbor Light was made of stone, 64 feet tall and 24 feet around at the base. The date of the first lighting was November 7th, 1761.
The lighthouse helped to guide American privateers home to New London. The City's Shaw family made a fortune in shipping during the colonial years leading to the American Revolution. At the start of hostilities in 1775 and under the permission of the Governor of Connecticut Johnathan Trumbull, Shaw began to outfit ships of line to wreak havoc on British supply ships. This type of legal piracy was an extremely effective tool for the colonies, as there was no real American navy at this point. The ship owner and his investors shared in the profits of the goods that were taken and resold at the docks, at escalated prices. A share would then go to the coffers of the state.
This activity prompted Benedict Arnold to target and burn down New London in 1781, having landed his troops on the beach near the lighthouse and then marched into town.
New London Harbor Light was the first lighthouse built on Long Island Sound. It is also was the fourth of the original 12 colonial lights that the young United States government managed under its newly established Lighthouse Board on August 7, 1789. The lighthouse was ceded to the United States, according to the following "Memoranda of Cessions" by Connecticut:
1790, May. Lighthouse at New London and certain rocks and
ledges off against the harbor of New London, called Race Rock,
Black Ledge,and Goshen Reef, together with buoys.
George Washington, himself, signed a contract authorizing the expenditure of $360 quarterly to supply New London Harbor Light's six lamps with spermaceti whale oil in 1791, when he enacted the Act for the Establishment and support of Lighthouse, Beacons, Buoys, and Public Piers.
Within 10 years, however, the government decided to rebuild the lighthouse. By 1799, the tower had developed 10-foot crack that ran down from the top. Complaints also had received that the lighthouse light was difficult to distinguish from new neighboring homes and was not not sufficiently visible to ships entering the harbor from the west. On May 7, 1800, Congress appropriated $15,700 "for rebuilding, altering, and improving the lighthouse at
New London, Conn."
Abisha Woodward of New London completed construction of the new lighthouse in 1801, along with an oil house and cistern building, all for a total cost of $15,547. The handsome 89-foot octagonal tower, made of granite with a brownstone facade and lined with brick, was originally left unpainted. The tower was painted white some time in the mid-19th century. It is the oldest and tallest lighthouse in Connecticut.
New London’s lighthouse was close to the action during the War of 1812. In fact, at the request of Commodore Decatur, the Americans put out the light so that British ships could not use it to navigate the harbor. With the militia nearby the British decided not to raid New London's harbor lighthouse, but they did raid Little Gull Island Light farther out at the Race.
A new keeper's dwelling was built in 1818 for $1,200.
[the application for National Historic Site provides the following] By 1833, the 1801 lighthouse needed extensive repair. In that year, Charles H. Smith contracted to furnish a new stone deck, lay on a brick arch, and supply the following: a new lantern surrounded with two Iron rails one Inch square, a new copper dome and vane, a new flight of wood stairs, and a new outer door and lock. He agreed to cement the outer Joints 1n the tower with hydraulic or Roman cement and whitewash the whole. The lantern, deck, and dome were to be equal 1n size to those at Morgan's Point 1n Groton, built 1n 1831-2. Repairs were to cost $1500.
In 1863 a third set of stairs, an Iron circular stairway was Installed 1n the tower. In all likelihood this Installation also Included the brick lining wall which supports the outer ends of the stair treads.
A remarkable succession of Innovative lighting devices have been used at New London Harbor Lighthouse. Eleven lamps and an ecllpser were Installed in the newly constructed Highttower, only five years after the first use 1n the U.S. of such an Intermittent lighting device at Cape Cod.
Although Wlnslow Lewis's patent lamps and parabolic reflectors were adopted for the U.S. lighthouses 1n 1812, New London Harbor Lighthouse was darkened during the war. In 1816 1t was among the last of the forty-nine American lighthouses to be refitted with the Lewis apparatus.
When the new lantern was Installed at the lighthouse 1n 1833, the Lewis apparatus was re-Installed, but by 1850 a visiting Inspector had declared the lighting apparatus 1n poor condition* noting that several arms to the reflectors were either loose or missing. Within the next
A dwelling for the lighthouse keeper measuring thirty-six by eighteen feet 1n plan, was constructed some distance to the west of the light tower 1n 1818. A contract for this Job 1n the amount of $1200.00 was John Bishop of New London enlarged the house with a one story kitchen wing for the sum of $590.00.
[The USCG provides the following 19th-c history] On November 22, 1838, Lt. George M. Bache, U. S. N., made a report on the light which he described as a stationary light, situated on a rocky point to the westward of the entrance to the River Thames, and 2 miles from the town of New London. It is of great importance as a leading light for vessels going in and out of the harbor of New
London, which, on account of its security, is much resorted to
during the heavy gales of winter.
The light is shown from an elevation of 111 feet, which, in clear weather, should render it visible 16-12 miles.
The tower is a substantial building of freestone, smooth hammered, and laid in courses; it is 80 feet in height, and is ascended by an interior stairway of wood, having landings at
The lighting apparatus consists of 11 lamps, with parabolic reflectors, disposed around 2 horizontal tables so as to throw
the lights from WSW south about to N by E. The reflectors are 13
inches in diameter. This apparatus was furnished in 1834.
In 1855 a fourth-order Fresnel lens to illuminate 315 degrees was recommended. In 1863 new dwellings for keepers were provided. The tower's cast-iron circular stair and lantern added at about this time. In 1868 a road (Pequot Avenue) was opened by the city of New London across the lighthouse grounds, the road was fenced on both sides.
In 1874 a second-class fog signal with two 18-inch engines and a Daboll trumpet was installed. It was in operation 553 hours during 1875. In 1883 a first-class fog trumpet was substituted. On December 21, 1896, an improved fog signal consisting of two 3 1/2-horsepower Hornsby-Akroydoil engines, air compressors etc., was installed operating the first-class Daboll trumpet.
The present keeper's house was enlarged in 1900.
A fog-signal house was built in 1903 and 13-horsepower oil engines, with trumpet, siren etc.,were installed in the following year. The fog signal was discontinued on September 5,1911, when it was moved off shore to the new Ledge Light.
On July 20, 1912, the station automated when the light was changed to acetylene.
New London's lighthouse and its former foghorn is mentioned in New London playwright Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey Into Night.
In 1929, the lighthouse grounds were divided and the keeper’s house sold to a private party, who own it to this day. The United States Coast Guard kept ownership of the lighthouse and a strip of land running from the former Engine House (where Daboll tested his fog horns) and Pequot Avenue.
In 2009, through the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act of 2000 and thanks to the work of NLMS president Ben Martin in 2002-3, New London Maritime Society became owners of New London Harbor Light. The formal conveyance took place October 13, 2010.
In 2013, New London Harbor Light was selected to represent Connecticut in the US Postal Service's Lighthouses of New England stamp series.
The lantern underwent an exterior restoration in 2014.
USCG description of the light: The lighthouse is a white, octagonal pyramidal tower, 90 feet above ground and 89 feet above water, the light being visible for 15 miles, and located on the west side of the entrance to New London Harbor. The light is a 6,000-candlepower fourth-order electric light flashing white every 4 seconds, with a red 1,300-candlepower sector from 0 degrees to 41 degrees, covering Sarah Ledge and the shoals to the westward.
We thank John T Phillips II for his research on the colonial history of the lighthouse, the New London Country Historical Society for the Shaw family information, and the USCG for the details about the 19th century especially about various fog horns.
25 August, 2010 Dear NLMS, I am enclosing two pictures (see images above left) of my grandfather, Antonio Dimaggio and his brother(half-brother? Francesco) in front of the keeper's house. He was keeper from 1916-1918.
The other picture is of my grandmother Marianna, my mother Josephine, and my grandfather Antonio DiMaggio at the door of the keeper's house. --Marian Dickson
July 1-3, 2011 we held our first Celebration
of New London's Lighthouse Heritage
The US Coast Guard continues to operate the lighthouse as an active aid to navigation. Meanwhile, New London Harbor Light is open to the public, by appointment, on a strictly limited basis. Please call 860-447-2501 to make inquiries.
According to the USCG, for the top of New London Harbor Light, one can see more lighthouses than from any other place on earth. From the top of the lighthouse, it is possible to see at least seven other lighthouses: New London Ledge, Race Rock, Little Gull Island, Plum Island, Little Dumpling, Montauk, and Avery Point.
The New London Maritime Society is pleased to annouce that a generous gift from the Kitchings Family has been used to establish a lighthouse endowment. This fund will be used to insure the light's permanent care. Additional contributions to the lighthouse fund may be made to:
New London Harbor Light Fund
New London Maritime Society
150 Bank Street, New London, CT 06320
below: photos from the current restoration; James Diaz-Saavedra's collection of lighthouse postcards, on view at the Custom House in Summer 2009, detail of the chart for Benedict Arnold's 1781 raid on New London, ca. 1862 plan of property.
Reference #89001470. Year Listed: 1990
Abisha Woodward was a contractor from New London, Connecticut, evidently a man of many talents. In 1793, he won a federal contract to complete the original Bald Head Island Light at Cape Fear, North Carolina. The state of North Carolina had begun work on this lighthouse before the new federal government assumed control of aids to navigation in 1789, and the tower was well advanced in construction when Woodward arrived on the scene. It's not his fault that the lighthouse was built too close to the shore and had to be torn down in 1813.
In 1799 a large crack developed in the wooden lighthouse at New London Harbor in Woodward's home town, and he was selected to build a stone replacement. The 89-foot tower Woodward completed in 1801 continues to shine today. The lantern has held a fourth order Fresnel lens since 1857. In many respects it shows a rather strong resemblance to the Cape Henry Light; this resemblance reflects the federal specifications, which described in detail the form and shape of the tower. Like McComb's lighthouses, Woodward's towers show robust design and careful and sturdy workmanship.
In 1802, Woodward built a second stone tower, about half the height of the New London lighthouse, at Faulkner's Island off the Connecticut coast. This tower looks very much like the upper half of the New London tower.
What are some interesting facts about lighthouses? from the USCG
First lighthouse - Boston, MA (1716)
Oldest original lighthouse in service - Sandy Hook, NJ (1764)
Newest shoreside lighthouse - Charleston, SC (1962)
Only triangular-shaped lighthouse tower - Charleston, SC (1962)
Only lighthouse equipped with an elevator - Charleston, SC (1962)
Tallest lighthouse - Cape Hatteras, NC (191 ft)
First American-built West Coast lighthouse - Alcatraz Lighthouse (1854)
First lighthouse to use electricity - Statue of Liberty (1886)
First Great Lakes lighthouses - Buffalo, NY & Erie, PA (1818)
Most expensive lighthouse (adjusted cost) - St. George’s Reef, CA (1891)
First lighthouse built completely by the Federal Government - Montauk Point, NY (1797)
Founding of the U.S. Lighthouse Service - 7 August 1789
U.S. Lighthouse Service merged with the Coast Guard - 7 July 1939
Second most powerful lighthouse in the world (and most powerful in the Western Hemisphere) - Charleston, SC (1962)
In March, 2012, the French Musee national de Marine opened a magnificent exhibition: PHARES -- Lighthouses. If you don't plan to be in Paris before the show ends on November 4, visit the Frank L. McGuire Maritime Research Library at the Custom House Maritime Museum to see the exhibition catalog.